What is "colic"
According to the Roman criteria III (diagnostic criteria of functional gastrointestinal disorders, published in April 2006, 2011) under mladencheskimi colic refers to "episodes of heightened irritability, anxiety or crying among children aged from birth to 4 months of age, and ending with no obvious reasons, which continue to 3:00 per day and over at least 3 days per week, for at least one week; the growth and development of the child must be absent. And to diagnose infant colic should be revealed all the above symptoms.
Typically, the debut of colic accounted for 2-3 weeks of life, they reach a climax in the second month and gradually disappear after 3-4 months. The most common time for infant colic-evening hours. The child begins to dramatically cry for no apparent reason (often during or shortly after feeding), his face reddens, he yells a shrill, anxious, knocking the legs, presses them to stomach, since there are difficulties with departed gas and stool. Baby belly while swollen and tense, there may be occasional regurgitation. After flatus and/or bowel movement comes a noticeable relief of pain by palpation of the abdomen is missing.
Causes of infant colic
The frequency of infant colic in natural and artificial feeding is virtually identical, according to different sources, from 20% to 70%. The cause of this phenomenon to the present is not very clear, despite his prolonged study. Among the main reasons are as follows:
- the immaturity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS supervises and regulates the functioning of all internal organs, including those responsible for digestion-sends organs of the gastrointestinal tract (hereinafter referred to as the STOMACH) appropriate signals, respectively, if the signals are still poorly established, and the process of digestion can be violated);
- late start enzyme system of the intestine (enzymes act as catalysts in virtually all biochemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including that they contribute to the absorption of food received. If the enzyme system of the intestine fails-food is not digested, causes fermentation and, as a consequence, increases leg);
- deficiency of hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid to the body it is difficult to overestimate. It participates in stvorazhivanii milk stimulates motor activity of the stomach, as well as some hormones and the secretion of certain enzymes, causes swelling of proteins (thus splitting enzymes) provides antibacterial effect, etc.);
- dysbacteriosis of the intestine (baby is born with a sterile intestine, respectively, to the intestines need time settled and bacteria very often accompanied by increased aeration);
- violation of the motor function of the intestine (peristalticheskaja wave (reduce the intestinal wall, which moves its contents) does not cover the whole intestinal tube, but only some of its stations in certain divisions of the small intestine occurs sharp bowel spasm and pain, respectively, as colic);
- feeding lactating mothers and/or its gastrointestinal diseases (breast milk is formed from blood components, respectively, of the nutrition moms affects the composition of milk to the same extent as the composition of the blood, and if the blood get toxins, they can get into the milk, which leads to irritation of the intestines of the child (learn more about the diet of lactating mothers and its influence on the leg at the kid here));
- incorrect mixture;
- allergic and psevdoallergicakie reactions;
- the transition from breastfeeding to artificial or switching to a new mixture;
- violation of technology of feeding (incorrect grip the nipple, gagging air, overfeeding);
- overheating (child sweats and loses moisture, intestinal juices become thick, respectively, and the BLOOD worsens);
- congenital malformations (nezareatmene hard palate, cleft lip, traheopishhevodnye fistula).
If all of the above together and a little easier, the leading role in the development of colic syndrome play flatulence (which helps contribute to the Division of the small intestine), bowel motility, local spasms. It is noteworthy that prematurity and LBW infants than large and full-term infant colic is usually more pronounced and more protracted.
How to help babies with colic: theory
On the basis of the above causes infant colic, the following recommendations have been developed to alleviate the condition of the child:
- before each feeding to spread child on his stomach for 5-10 minutes to massage the abdomen (or just stroke it clockwise), make exercise "bike" or "the world inside" (bend the legs at the knees and pull up to the stomach). These procedures improves peristalsis and, as a consequence, discharge of gases;
- ensure that the child is not zaglatyval the air during feeding (natural feeding should monitor the correctness of capture; when artificial feeding should keep the bottle so that the nipple was milk, it is advisable to use a bottle of antikolikovuju (Photo 1);
- After feeding should hold child "column" (vertical) 10-15 minutes to departed air caught in the stomach of the baby while feeding;
- for better flatus, as well as during colic, we recommend that you apply to stomach the child a warm heating pad or nappy, heated irons, post baby belly on my mother's (father's) stomach;
- do not overfeed (children bottle-fed-do not exceed the volume of the mixture of age and withstand the necessary intervals for children breastfed pediatricians usually recommend withstand break of at least two hours between feedings);
- When bottle-fed, attention should be paid to the adequacy of the choice of milk, its conformity to the functional characteristics of the digestive system of the baby. Introduction to appropriate diet adapted mixture enriched with pre-and probiotics, or milk mixtures (for example, fermented milk, fermented milk Nutrilak Nutrilon, NAN 1 Milk and milk Agusha, 2 1 and 2). In the absence of the effect can be used products, specially created for children with functional GASTROINTESTINAL disorders: NAN comfort 1 and Comfort 2 Nutrilon, Frisovom 1 and 2, troll, AR, etc. If the violations are caused by lactase deficiency, the child gradually transferred to bezlaktoznuju mixture. When the food intolerances can be recommended therapeutic blends based on milk protein vysokogidrolizovannogo. Important thing to remember is that an abrupt and frequent changes of mixtures can worsen the situation, therefore, the introduction of the new mixture is carried out very slowly. In addition, it should be noted that the violations typically involve the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, with his immaturity. Accordingly, after the disappearance of symptoms for some time it is advisable to gradually return to normal, since the mixture adapted therapeutic mixture not's moves are so organic and cannot provide baby necessary substances to the extent that it makes the usual mixture.
- do not overheat;
- If it is absolutely necessary to use the vapor tube (about how to use the vapour tube wrote here)-the less the better;
- use anti-flatulent (only if non-pharmacological measures have proved to be ineffective).
The most "ancient" vetrogonnym means is considered to be the fennel or dill. Specially for kids it is issued in the form of tea or dill water. It is believed that oil of fennel has weak vetrogonnym and spasmolytic effects that the result provides relief attack colic baby.
It should be noted, however, that the misuse of fennel-based can cause indigestion and allergic reactions manifesting nature. You also cannot exclude individual intolerance, which can be expressed, inter alia, in the form of nausea and vomiting.
Essential oil of fennel is part of such drugs as Plantex, Bebikalm, happy-Baby. However, we must remember that the Planteksa included including lactose, so it should not be used for children with lactase deficiency. The composition of the Bebikalm and happy-Baby fennel oil also includes aniseed and Peppermint oils which can cause allergic reactions. In addition, oil drops can be bad immature DIGESTIVE TRACT kid.
Among the drugs used in infant colic, also include herbs, containing as active ingredients liquid herbal tinctures of fennel, Chamomile, coriander, for example Bebinos. When applying these drugs should remember that they include ethanol (ethyl alcohol), and this makes them undesirable long term use in infants, although the percentage of ethanol.
One of the safest and most effective ways of treating infant colic is considered to be the use of foam. They include simethicone-based preparations (Jespumizan, Sab simplex, Bobotik, Simikol, Disflatil). Simethicone has the ability to destroy the bubbles of gas in the digestive tract. Released while gases are absorbed by the intestinal wall or removed due to peristalsis. The drugs themselves are displayed in unaltered with faeces. It is believed that simethicone is not absorbed in the intestine, it is addictive and can be used both at the time of pain (usually, pain syndrome in this case disappears within a few minutes), and to prevent the development of colic at each feeding the baby. However, it should be noted that virtually all contain simethicone preparations on the basis of auxiliary substances, including air fresheners, which may cause allergic reactions (more details on vetrogonnyh means you can read here).
The use of such drugs warranted when there are exactly colic and increased gas, usually accompanied swelling and hardness of the belly. If the abdomen is soft, the baby will likely not bother colic and flatulence and not painful gazikov releases (which are the norm for anyone in a small amount) associated with weak muscles of the bowel-in this case, the heat on the tummy will be much more effective.
Some doctors also prescribe kids Pro-and Prebiotics, enzymes. It is assumed that these drugs will help accelerate the maturing INTESTINE heart. However, remember that even one child microflora can change daily, not to mention the fact that it is fundamentally different in different children. Accordingly, pick up suitable a particular child bacteria appears to be quite a complex process, and incorrectly chosen drug can give side effects and even slow down the ripening of the digestive tract.
There is also an opinion (mostly on the territory of the former Soviet Union), that kid can ease the condition exclusion from the diet of the mother cow's milk protein and gas-forming foods. However, this view is not supported by research, and due to the fact that dairy products are one of the main sources of calcium as well as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria, normally, such a deletion is not justified.
How to help babies with colic: mom's experience
Immediately I say that we have breastfeeding and colic as such, my baby was not. My stomach was always mild but painful discharge of gases was the place to be. Simethicone-based preparations and Dill water no effect on releases gases do not have. With regard to enzymes, Pro-and Prebiotics, which Wiki was bulk side effects (constipation/diarrhea/blood in stool). As a result, we have helped ease the situation the following activities:
1. Feeding times in 2-3 hours (from the beginning to the beginning of) a day and not more than once a 3:00-night. During this time, the child managed to eat (usually newborn hanging on his chest 40 minutes), milk keep up perevaritsja, and formed the gases were able to leave, do not accumulate in the gut and without irritating it.
However, it is worth noting, if feeding is carried out less frequently than once in 3:00 (during waking hours), it is usually a child by this time become very hungry. There are two problems here: first, the hungry child begins to suck much faster, which helps air sucking zaglatyvaniju; Secondly, due to enhanced feelings of hunger, the child may pereest, because the sense of fullness comes immediately.
2. Before each feeding, we helped my daughter to release accumulated Jeep, alternating the following postures:
- Reupload on belly
- Reupload back and exercise "bike", "world inside"
- Reupload back and periodic rises at an angle of 30 degrees (mom or dad sat down on the bed, leaning back on the pillow and slightly bending your knees, baby put on top of the legs (for convenience, you can cover your legs with a blanket and put the kid in the recess between the legs) and started to omit-raise on 30 degrees-again omitted; for the same purpose, you can plant a heart in rocker 0 + (if available)).
Started breastfeeding only once the intestines will be cleansed from air trapped after the last feeding.
3. Adherence to "alert" the breast. As you know, the "front" milk contains a lot of lactose (milk sugar). Therefore, consumption of large amounts of "front" and "rear deficiency milk" might lead to higher gasification. Accordingly, in order to reduce the fermentation process should ensure that the child is not only a "front" and "rear" of milk. For this purpose the consultants on breastfeeding frequently recommends that comply with the "duty" of the chest. The essence of this method is that the child is given one breast, regardless of the number of applyings, not less than 3:00 (in our case, at feeding times two hours I gave 2 times one breast, 2 times; daughter ate at night times in 3:00 chest, respectively, changed every time). If the chest is full, before you start feeding you can strain them a little "front" milk. However, it is worth remembering that lactose is food for beneficial intestinal flora, but because getting the "front" of milk is also very important. After the arrival of "mature" lactation (we had it was at 6 weeks), it became much easier, because the breast is already not so much nalivalas.
4. Helped ease the condition carrying her daughter in a special way in which hand mom (dad) fed tummy (Photo 2). By the way, wearing a "column" after eating it was a futile exercise because the air Wick virtually no zaglatyvala.
Fall asleep we have adapted so: after feeding I sat down on the bed, leaning back on the pillow, and took the daughter at the hands of "cylinder". Slightly shaking the baby, I gradually slipped on a pillow down. As my daughter, go creep accumulated Jeep. If it brought severe discomfort, and she began screaming, I again a bit pripodnimalas to its soothing, then slipped on the cushion. As a result, it is falling asleep under the heart beat lying puzikom on the mother's abdomen. After a while she could slide to the side and sleep just beside me. Of course, sleep with the baby in the belly is not very comfortable, but after long months of pregnancy it was not so difficult (at least it's better than no sleep). Besides, this method of stowage is available not only my mom, but Dad and, therefore, may be interleaved.
5. On the recommendation of the paediatrician per month baby I removed all dairy from the diet and gazoobrazujushhie products (and generally sat on a hypoallergenic diet) to four and a half months. However, the jeep stopped bother daughter 5 months (i.e. 2 weeks later after I became fully fed, including returned to the diet of dairy products). Because I believe that good nutrition and healthy digestion moms speed up the ripening process better than any kid's DIGESTIVE enzymes, Pro-and Prebiotics.
Based on the foregoing, the following conclusion can be drawn: colic (or simply painful Jeep) associated with immaturity little body and fully cured can only time. The task of moms don't try and fool the nature of attempts to speed up the process of operationalization of the INTESTINE (unless necessary), and be near and facilitate State kid in this difficult period for him.
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