It is no secret that children suffer from acute respiratory diseases (ARI) more often than adults (the reasons for this phenomenon are discussed here). However, the incidence of disease can be very different among children. For toddlers who suffer more often than their peers, the medical literature introduces a special medical term "FAC" (which means "often sick children"). Sometimes, in order to emphasize the peculiarities of respiratory infections (in particular their protracted nature), the term "often and long-term children" is used in pediatric practice.
In district polyclinics children, who are given the status of often sick, are on special Account and special Account-dispensary. However, such a group should not include children whose acute respiratory disease is associated with different innate, hereditary or acquired pathology (primary immunodeficiency, malformations of ENT-organs or bronchopulmonary system, Cystic fibrosis, etc.). Such children should be observed on the profile of the main disease in a specialized dispensary group.
It should be noted that the status of "FAC" is very conventional. For example, the national medical science assigns such status to the child, if it for a year has transferred:
-4 and more Ari at the age of 1 year;
-6 and more Ari at the age of 1-3 years;
-5 and more Ari at the age of 4-5 years;
-4 or more Ari over the age of 5 years.
At the same time, medical authorities of some other countries (for example, USA and Great Britain) claim that for the child attending children's groups is the norm to transfer to 8-10 Ari per year.
According to the authors of a series of works carried out under the aegis of WHO, in different countries (both developed and developing) young children carry an average of 5-8 ari per year. However, it is noted that in urban areas children are more likely to suffer (up to 10-12 infections per year) than in rural areas. In addition, toddlers who attend pre-school in full-time are generally more likely to be sick than those growing up exclusively at home.
The maximum incidence of ARI is observed between September and April. At this time, some toddlers may even have monthly episodes of acute respiratory viral infections (SARS). Given that the duration of each episode is an average of 14 days, it turns out that the child may have symptoms of infection almost half a day during that period. It is difficult to call it the norm, but in case the disease is mild, without causing complications, most experts believe that there are no grounds for concern.
The alarm should be beaten when each SARS ends with severe bacterial complications, regardless of the number of episodes per year. Probably, in this case will not damage the consultation of immunologist. However, it should be remembered that congenital immunity (primary immunodeficiency) is a rarity.
In the vast majority of cases, frequent Ari is a consequence of secondary immunodeficiency, when from birth the normal immune system under the influence of certain external factors does not develop or something is oppressed. The most common factors are:
- Wrong the child's environment and non-compliance with the drinking regime. The optimal conditions for adequate functioning of the local immunity (and the body as a whole) are the temperature 18-22 C and humidity 40-60%. If the air temperature is higher and the humidity is lower-drying of mucus in the nose (and liquid mucus is the first obstacle in the way of the virus), the child has a constant dry cough, "grunting" in the nose, viruses quietly penetrate through the dried mucous . Frequent long walks (if, certainly, on a street not heat or a frost), plentiful drinking mode, creation at least in a child's bedroom optimum conditions, as a rule, contribute to reduction of number of SARS and more easy their current;
- Failure to meet the terms of treatment. Undeniable is the fact that viral infections for a while reduce the protective functions of the body, so if the child finds a new virus before it is completely restored after the disease, the likelihood of getting sick with complications Increases. In addition, it is so, as a rule, and earned chronic tonsillitis, pharyngitis, Adenoiditis. Sick baby Ari with inflammation adenoids, tonsils, etc. The temperature slept, it became easier – returned to a full-fledged social life, and for full recovery after inflammation sometimes need 2-3 weeks. Picked up the kid a new virus where he will start his activity? Where the body has not had time to finally recover. And again inflamed the same adenoids, tonsils, etc. Thus, after the transferred SARS it is desirable to protect the baby from places with a large congestion of people, and also to observe other measures of prevention of SARS.
Thus, even very frequent episodes of SARS should not cause panic if they pass without complications and the use of a huge amount of drugs. With age, the immune system matures and frequent diseases will turn into rare.
However, this does not cancel the fact that children should be temperinged, where possible to protect them from sources of infection, to feed fully, to create optimal environmental conditions, to protect sick children from unnecessary therapeutic interventions, as well as Treat diseases, against which the ARI develop especially often and occur heavily (chronic tonsillitis, allergies).